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Lesson by "The Irish People"
An forainm coibhneasta (fohr-AN-im KIV-nas-tuh) le "is";
the relative pronoun with "is"
The verb "is"
has its own form for relative clauses. The simplest form relies on
"is" and "nach" to connect the clauses in the
present tense. Read these examples aloud several times to form an
idea of this:
Cuir ort hata
is maith leat; put on a hat that you like.
Cuir ort an hata
is fearr leat; put on the hat you prefer.
Cuir ar an mbord
an gloine (GLIN-e) nach maith leis; put the glass he doesn't like
on the table.
an fear is múinteoir sa scoil lán-Ghaelach; that's the
man who is a teacher in the all-Irish school.
fadhb mhór dom; it is a lesson that isn't a big problem for
nach cúis náire duit; that's a hammer that's not a (source
of/cause of) disgrace to you.
For an aimsir
chaite agus an modh coinníollach, the past tense and conditional
mood, "ba" (or "ab") and "nár"
are the words connecting the clauses. These words cause aspiration
of consonants following them. Examples of an aimsir chaite:
an hata ba mhaith léi; she put on the hat she liked.
amach an tolg nár mhaith liom; Nóirín threw out
the sofa that I didn't like.
(AHN-ree) an ceann ab fhearr leat; Annraoi got the one that you preferred.
an fear ba láidre sa tír; Brian was the man who was
the strongest in the country (the strongest man in the country).
nár chúis náire do Chiarán; that was a
hammer that wasn't a disgrace to Ciarán.
an cailín ab airde sa rang; that was the tallest girl in the
an modh coinníollach:
fheirmeoir ba bhoichte (VWIK*-te) sa cheantar, dámbeadh séagam;
I would give it to the farmer who would be the poorest in the district,
if I had it.
Bheinn ar mo mhúinteoir
ar fhearr sa scoil dágcuirfinn suim (sim) i m'obair; I would
be the best teacher in the school if I took interest in my work.
For the dative
and genitive cases (an tuiseal tabharthach agus an tuiseal ginideach)
in the present tense, the connecting words are "ar" ("arb"
before a vowel) and "nach," without aspiration of a following
consonant. Examples with the dative:
an fear ar leis an carr sin; this is the man to whom that car belongs.
an bhean arb ainm léi Nóra; That's the woman whose name
an bhfear nach leis an carr sin; I returned with the man whose car
that isn't (who doesn't own that car).
With the genitive:
fhear ar múinteoir a mhac; I gave it to the man whose son is
an dochtúir arb aoi a bhean; this is the doctor whose wife
is a guest.
an bhean arbéa mac a bhíann inné; that's the
woman whose son it was who was there yesterday.
an mbuachail nach scoláire a dheirfiúr (yri-FOOR); I
waited for the lad whose sister is not a student.
In the past tense
and the conditional, the dative and genitive forms require "ar"
and "nár" if the next word begins with a consonant
or with an "f" followed by a consonant. "Ar" and
"nár" cause aspiration of the initial consonant.
The words "arbh" (ER-ruhv) and "nárbh"
(NAW*R-ruhv) connect the clauses if the next word begins with a vowel
or an "f" followed by a vowel.
mhian leis bád seoil a cheannach; he was a doctor who wished
to buy a sailboat.
mhian léi bheith ina cónaíanseo; she was a doctor
who did not wish to be living here.
arbháil leis dul ag obair; I saw a man who wanted to go to
mhaith léi bheith déanach; she was a student who didn't
like to be late.
the genitive in the aimsir chaite agus modh coinníollach:
an fear ar mhian lena athair fanacht anseo; that was the man whose
father wanted to stay here.
sésa seomra eile an páiste nárbháil lena
mháthair dul abhaile?; didn't he put into the other room the
child whose mother didn't want to go home?
cailín arbháil a hathair teach eile a cheannach; you
would see the girl whose father would want to buy another house.
(RAY*V-ohk-uhl) "de"; the preposition "de"
This word, meaning
"off" or "of", is part of several common expressions:
(de GNAW*), usually
d'oíche (de loh is DEE-he). day and night
(de gluhn-VYOU-ir), by heart (in memorizing)
den ocras; he died of hunger.
In addition, you
can be "buíoch dí", grateful to her, or "buíoch
diot", grateful to you, or "buíoch de Mháire",
grateful to Mháire.
de, dándéarfadh séé; I would be certain
of it if he were to say it.
is useful in expressing partial amounts. A part or piece of the bread
is "píosa den arán." ("A piece of bread,"
however, is "píosa aráin," with "aráin"
in the genitive case.)
Bain diot do chóta;
take off your coat.
ask me (literally, ask of me).
Jumping from and
falling from involve "de"; thit séden teach; he fell
off the house. Léimfidh séden droichead; he will jump
off the bridge.
If some person
or object exceeds another by some measurement, the "de"
níos airde náTomás de dháorlach; Séamas
is taller than Tomás by two inches.
Bheadh an loch
níba dhoimhne (GIV-ne) náan abhainn (OU-in) de naoi
dtroith (dri), dáromhrófaíamaché; the
lake would be deeper than the river by nine feet if it were to be
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