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Lesson by "The Irish People"
The letter "r"
is pronounced with two principal sounds in Irish, and both sounds
differ from the American pronunciation. If the "r" begins
a word and is followed by an "a, o, u", roll the sound by
placing the tongue tip near enough to the hard ridge behind the upper
front teeth to make the tongue vibrate as you say the "r".
Examples: rás, ramhar (ROU-wuhr), raca (RAHK-uh), ród,
roc (rohk), rún (roon), rud (ruhd).
the same sound when it begins a word and is followed by "e, i",
as in: réim (ray*m), reilig (REL-ig), rí (ree), riamh
(reev), rith (ri).
The broad "r"
sound inside a word or at the end, and near "a, o, u", is
not as likely to be rolled. It often resembles the American pronunciation.
A double "r" near "a, o, u", is rolled, however,
as in: barr (bahr), cearr (kyahr), carraig (KAHR-rig), bearraim (BYAHR-rim),
Next to an "e,
i" inside or at the end of a word, the "r" gets its
slender sound. This is perhaps the most difficult Irish sound for
Americans. Place the tongue tip near the top of your upper front teeth
and form a shallow pocket in the tongue front. Then pronounce "r".
The air should blow downwards toward the lower lip as you drop the
tongue. Try: fir (fir), beirim (BER-im), litir, féir (fay*r),
Máire (MAW*-re), creid (kred), Bríd (breed). Compare
"féar" with "féir". The former word
has an "r" like the American "r" at its end.
The slender "r"
faintly resembles a "d" or "zh" sound in English.
In parts of Ireland, a word like "Máire" may sound
after a consonant sometimes seems to add a syllable, as in: breá
In Irish, "r"
is pronounced in the front of the mouth, never in the back with a
guttural rolling as in some other European languages.
Up to now, all
the verbs that you have studied, with one exception, have been "regular".
In a regular verb, the forms are based on the imperative, which you
can always recognize in the verb form. For instance, "cuir"
(kir) means "Put!" In the past tense, "chuir sé"
(k*ir shay*) means "he put". "Chuireann (KIR-uhn) sé"
means "he puts", and "chuirfinn" (K*IR-hin) means
"I would put". All forms are easily recognizable as belonging
verbs change more in going from tense to tense, and some change going
from affirmative to negative. One irregular verb is "tá".
It becomes "níl" and "an bhfuil" in the
present, and then changes to "bhí", "ní
raibh", and "an raibh" in the past. About ten other
Irish verbs are irregular, many fewer than in English, but the Irish
verbs change more. We will learn them gradually. The first two are
"come" and "go", in the past tense.
tháinig mé (HAW*-nig may*), I came
tháinig tú, you came
tháinig sé, he came
tháinig sí, she came
thángamar (HAW*NG-uh-muhr), we came
tháinig sibh (shiv), you came
tháinig siad (SHEE-uhd), they came
mé, I didn't come
níor thángamar, we didn't come
níor tháinig tú, etc.
mé?, did I come?
ar thángamar?, did we come?
mé?, didn't I come?
nár thángamar?, did we come? etc.
chuaigh mé (K*OO-ig may*), I went
chuaigh tú, you went
chuaigh sé, he went
chuaigh sí, she went
chuamar (K*OO-uh-muhr), we went
chuaigh sibh, you went
chuaigh siad, they went
(The word "chuaigh" is pronounced (K*-OO-uh) in parts of
mé (nee YAK*-hee may*), I didn't go
ní dheachaigh tú, you didn't go
ní dheachaigh sé, he didn't go
ní dheachaigh sí, she didn't go
ní dheachamar (nee YAK*-uh-muhr), we didn't go
ní dheachaigh sibh, you didn't go
ní dheachaigh siad, they didn't go
mé? (un NYAK*-hee may*), did I go?
an ndeachamar? (unNYAK*-uh-muhr), did we go?
an ndeachaigh tú?, did you go?, etc.
mé? (nahk* NYAK*-hee may*), didn't I go?
nach ndeachamar? (nahk* NYAK*-uh-muhr), didn't we go? etc.
the "ch" next to an "a, o, u" is pronounced by
dropping the back of the tongue somewhat while you pronounce the "c"
that is in "coat". The result is a guttural sound like that
in the German "ach". Don't drop the tongue so far that all
you get is an "h" sound. Our phonetic guide employs (k*)
for the sound.
Go through a progressive
drill with each of these two verbs. Start with: Ar tháinig
mé? Níor tháinig mé. Tháinig tú.
Ar tháinig tú? Níor tháinig tú.
Tháinig sé. Continue to the last phrase: Tháinig
mé. "Went" requires some alertness. Start with: An
ndeachaigh mé? Ní dheachaigh mé. Chuaigh tú.
An ndeachaigh tú? Ní dheachaigh tú. Chuaigh sé.
Continue to the last phrase: Chuaigh mé.
Then join the
following phrases to all forms to make sentences: amach; isteach;
suas an staighre; síos an staighre; amach sa ghairdín;
isteach sa teach; inné; abhaile; inniu.
"I was going" is "Bhí mé ag dúl",
and that "I was coming" is "Bhí mé ag
teacht". "I went" and "I came" are this lesson's
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(c) 1997 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.