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Lesson by "The Irish People"
The Irish words
for "on me, on you", etc., are examples of several of the
pronunciation principles that you have learned. "Orm", on
me, is (OH-ruhm), with a short (oh) sound that may resemble English
(uh). The "r" is broad, with a brief trilled or rolled effect.
"Ort", on you, is (OH-ruht), with the "t" broad.
For "air" (er), on him, the "r" is slender (see
Lesson 29), but in "ar" (er), the "r" is broad.
(OH-rin) and "oraibh" (OH-riv), the first syllable is like
that for "orm". For "orthu", on them, the word
ends in a (huh) sound, (OHR-huh), because of the aspirated "t".
Read this passage
slowly without looking at the Key below it. Then read it a second
time, making use of the Key if you are unsure. Do not try to make
sense of the words; concentrate on the pronunciation and on grouping
the words into phrases.
léir, tháinig roinnt iascairí aici, ar an abhainn,
níos mó ná riamh, agus a thaithíonn an-chuid
téipeanna, le linn an fheachtais seo. Beidh sé chomhpháirteach,
a chuireann as go mór, b'fhiú dó a chur go gcaithfeadh
sé, go bhfuil leagan amach bunúsach, ar íosmhéid
cainte, agus chothaigh sé neamhchinnteacht, ina measc.
Key: daw* muh
LAY*R, HAW*-nig rint EES-kuh-ree a-KI, er un OU-in, nees moh naw*
reev, AH-guhs uh hah-HEE-uhn AHN-k*wid TAY*P-uh-nuh, le lin un AK*-tish
shuh. be shay* hoh-FAW*R-tyuhk*, uh K*IR-uhn as goh MOHR, byoo doh
uh K*UR goh GAH-huhk* shay*, goh vwil LAG-uhn uh-MAHK* bun-OOS-uhk*,
er EES-vay*d KEYENT-e, AH-guhs K*OH-hee shay* nyav-HYIN-tyuhk*t, IN-uh
Note that the
"f" in "caithfeadh" gets only an (h) sound. This
occurs in the future tense and in conditional forms of the verbs,
which you will soon study.
By now, you should
be losing your fear of long, new words, and you should be able to
give unfamiliar words a nearly correct pronunciation. We will continue
with this type of pronunciation exercise for several more lessons.
You know how to
say "he is writing", "he wrote", and "he
was writing" in Irish. "He is writing" means that at
this time someone is actually writing. When we say "he writes",
however, we mean that a person writes now and then, more or less frequently,
but that he may not be writing at this instant.
Irish makes the
same distinction, and we say that "he writes" is in the
present habitual tense. It forms the imperative, scríobh, and
looks like this:
(SHKREEV-im), I write
tú (SHKREEV-uhn too), you write
sé, he writes
sí, she writes
(SHKREEV-uh-mid), we write
shibh (shiv), you (pl) write
siad (SHEE-uhd), they write
For the negative,
put a "ní" (nee) before these forms. "Ní"
aspirates where possible. The "s" in "scríobh"
cannot be aspirated: Ní scríobhaim.
(DEE-uhl), sell, however: Ní dhíolaim (nee YEE-lim),
I don't sell.
For the questions,
put "an" (un) or "nach" (nahk*) before the basic
forms. Both eclipse wherever possible:
tú go minic? Do you write often?
sé feoil? (nahk* NEE-luhn shay* FYOH-il) Doesn't he sell meat?
carr (kahr), an
aon charr amháin
(ay*n k*ahr uh-WOYN), only one auto
(gaw* k*ahr), two autos
charr, three autos
charr, four autos
charr, five autos
charr, six autos
tógail (tohg, uh TOHG-aw*-il), take, lift
scar, ag scaradh
(skahr, uh SKAHR-uh), separate
bearr, ag bearradh
(byahr, uh BYAHR-uh), shave
ceap, ag ceapadh
(kyap, uh KYAP-uh), think
1. Go through
a progressive drill in the present habitual for each of these combinations:
buail; an teach
leis an gcarr
cuir; na rudaí
sa seomra eile
For example: An
mbrisim cupáin agaus plátai? Ní bhrisim (VRISH-im)
cupáin agus plátaí. Briseann tú cupáin
agus plátaí. An mbriseann tú cupáin agus
2. In answer to
the question: "Cén t-am é? (kay*n TOUM ay*) What
time is it? go through this drill:
é? Tá sé nóiméad (NOH-may*d) roimh
(rev) a haon a chlog.
What time is it?
It is one minute before one o'clock.
é? Tá sé nóiméad tar éis
(tuhr AY*SH) a dó a chlog.
WHat time is it?
It is one minute after two o'clock.
two minutes before three o'clock; two minutes after four o'clock;
three minutes before five o'clock; three minutes after six o'clock,
and so on, to six minutes after twelve o'clock.
3. Read these
verb forms, deciding quickly whether they give a command, are in the
present habitual tense, or are in the past tense:
Magaimid. Thuigeamar. Dhíol sé. Closisim. D'ól
mé. Siúil! Chrochaigh mé. Deisigh é! Buaileann
Key: Clean me.
We mock. We understood. He sold. I hear. I drank. Walk! I hung. Repair
it! They strike.
4. Review counting
from one to twelve.
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(c) 1997 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.