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Lesson by "The Irish People"
The letter group
"ai" in an accented syllable can have the sound (a) as in
English "at" or (ah) as in English "Ah-hah". "Ai"
at the beginning of a word often has the (a) sound, as in:
ait (at), strange;
aingeal (ANG-uhl), angel; aibí (A-bee), ripe.
A few words, such
as "aige" (eg-E), at him, and "air" (er), on him,
are exceptions. "Aimsir" (EYEM-sheer), weather, is another
exception in parts of Ireland. In other parts it is pronounced (AM-sheer).
When an accented
"ai" follows the consonant b, c, f, g, m, p, it often takes
an (ah) sound. You have learned this in these words:
home; cailín (kah-LEEN), girl; faire (FAH-re), watching; gairid
(GAH-rid), short; maith (mah), good; paidir (PAHD-ir), prayer.
"ai" follows d, l, n, r, s, t, it often takes the (a) sound.
laisteas de, south of
(tash-PAW*-in); taispeáin dom é, show me it
The groups "aibh,
aidh, aigh" are often pronounced (eye) when in an accented or
initial syllable, as in:
"de" means "off" or sometimes "of".
It also serves in some common idioms, such as, "Táim buíoch
(BWEE-uhk*) de Sheán", I am thankful to John. "De"
aspirates the first consonant of the next word. If "an, the",
comes between, the "an" combines with the "da",
and aspiration occurs after the combination. An example: Thit sé
den chapall (hit shay* den K*AHP-uhl), he fell off the horse.
I, you, he, etc., "de" combines to form single words. Learn
de (de), off him
di (dee), off
off you (plural)
"De" means "of" in expressions such as:
(kyoun DEE-uhv), one of them
arán (PEES-uh den uh-RAW*N), a piece of bread
an chuid is mó
(k*wid is moh) den pháipéar, most of the paper
Examples of idioms that contain "de" are:
Fiafraigh de cá
bhfuil Seán (FEE-uh-ree de kaw* vwil shaw*n), Ask him where
buíoch díot, He is thankful to you.
de (TAW*-im toor-SHAHK* de), I am tired of it.
De ló is
d'oíche (de loh is DEE-huh), day and night.
(de GNAW*), usually.
This is a recognition
review of the irregular verbs in present, past, and future tenses.
Read the sentences aloud. Do not translate word for word; instead,
try to picture the meaning. If you do not remember what some words
mean, wait until you have finished all the sentences before you look
at the translation below.
Séamas ag teacht isteach? Ní fhaca sé a athair
ag dul suas an staighre. Béarfaidh siad ar an gcéad
léine a fheicfidh siad. Téim go dtí an siopa
timpeall a sé a chlog. An dtiocfaidh sé abhaile leat?
Nach dtagaimid tríd an tollán agus sinn ag teacht chuig
an chathair? Rinneamar rud éigin le tabhairt dó. Ní
dúirt sí linn go bhfuair sí bord nua. Íosfaidh
sibh bhur lón ag baile. Gheobhaidh tú gloine bainne
ar ball. Chonaic mé na madraí ag rith síos an
Didn't we hear James coming in? He didn't see his father going up
the stairs. They will grab the first shirt that they see. I go to
the store around six o'clock. Will he come home with you? Don't we
come through the tunnel when we come to the city? We made something
to give to him. She didn't tell us that she got a new table. You will
eat your lunch at home. You will get a glass of milk soon. I saw the
dogs running along the street.
Learn these expressions
for use in conversation"
(day*n DE-fir), Hurry up!
(AH-bir ay*), You said it! Certainly! I agree. (Means "Say it",
Ar mhaith leat
____ ? (er VWAH lat), would you like ____ ? For example, Ar mhaith
leat cupán tae?, Would you like a cup of tea?
(er NOH-ee), of course.
Form answers or
replies to each of these sentences assumed spoken to you. Make your
answers as long as possible without prolonged pauses.
Dia, dhuit, a
Shéamais. Conas tá tú? Cá bhfuil tú
ag dul? Bhí mé ann inné. An rachaidh tú
go hÉirinn go luath? Nach bhfuil tú tuirseach anois?
Cathain a imeoidh tú anocht? Cén t-ainm atá air?
In each case,
try to introduce some of the reflex expressions that you have learned.
Keep each sentence of a long answer short.
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(c) 1997 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.