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Lesson by "The Irish People"
combinations "adh" and "agh" as (eye) when they
are in accented or initial syllables.
horn; radharc (REYE-uhrk), view; fadhb (feyeb), problem; aghaidh (EYE-ee),
face; laghad (LEYE-uhd), smallness; saghas (seyes), sort.
If an "i" or "e" follows the "adh" or
"agh," an "i" will be needed between the "a"
and the "adh" or "agh"; the spelling becomes "aidh"
or "aigh." The (eye) sound is retained.
research; aighneas (EYE-nuhs), dispute; caighdeán (keye-DAW*N),
standard; saighdiúir (seye-DYOO-ir), soldier.
The "i" is added, too, if a consonant after the "adh"
or "agh" is to have its slender sound.
aim; maidhm (meyem), explosion. Make sure that the broad "m"
sound in "adhmad" differs from the slender "m"
sound in "aidhm."
If the "adh", "aidh" or "aigh" is at
a word end and unaccented, the sound may be either (uh) or (ee). Examples:
summer; samhraidh (SOU-ree), of summer; ceannaigh (KAN-ee), buy.
The group "agh"
is rare at the end of a word. Where it occurs in misspelled Irish
place names, it usually should be "ach".
For all the above
rules, memorize the examples, not the rules.
nouns are all masculine and end in a broad consonant, with "a,
o, u" before the consonant. The plural form of these nouns often
is the same as the genitive singular that we have studied in the last
two lessons. Examples are:
an bháid (uh VWAW*-id), na báid (nuh BAW*-id); boat,
of the boat, the boats.
an chuntais (uh K*OON-tish), na cuntais (nuh KOON-tish), account,
of the account, the accounts.
means "the" in the plural. Use the plural forms given above
in sentences like:
na báid amach; the boats go out.
amach; boats go out.
(FEK-uhn shay*) na báid; he sees the boats
báid; he sees boats.
Note that this
plural form is the same whether the word is the subject or the object.
Other first-declension nouns form the plural differently. Here are
apple; becomes "úlla" (OOL-uh), apples, and "na
húlla" (nuh HOOL-uh), the apples. Note that an "h"
is added here in front of the vowel.
poem; becomes "dánta" (DAW*N-tuh), poems, and "na
dánta", the poems.
road; becomes "bealaí" (BAL-ee), roads, and "na
bealaí", the roads.
carr (kahr), car;
becomes "carranna" (KAHR-uh-nuh), cars, and "na carranna",
Learn the plural
for each new noun in the vocabulary lists.
Here are more
first declension nouns. Learn the genitive singular and the plural
an cupán, an chupáin (uh k*u-PAW*-in), na cupáin;
cup, the cup, of the cup, the cups.
(kish-AW*N), an ciseán, chiseáin (uh hyish-AW*-in),
na ciseáin; basket, etc.
an rothar, an rothair (uh ROH-hir), na rothair; bicycle, etc.
an t-airgead, an airgid (uhn AR-i-gid), na hairgid; money, etc.
an ceann, an chinn (uh hyin), na cinn (nuh kin); head, one of anything,
an lasán, an lasáin (uh luh-SAW*-in), na lasáin;
match (inflammable), etc.
(BOH-uhr), an bóthar, an bhóthair (uh VWOH-ir), na bóithre
(nuh BOH-i-re); road, the road, of the road, the roads.
(paw*-PAY*R), an páipéar, an pháipéir
(uh faw*-PAY*-ir), na páipéir; paper, etc.
an solas, an tsolais (uh TUH-lish), na soilse (nuh SEYEL-she); light,
(ou-RAW*N), an t-amhrán, an amhráin (uhn ou-RAW*-in),
na hamhráin; song, etc.
an droichead, an droichid (uh DRUH-hid), na droichid; bridge, etc.
(ti-KAY*D), an ticéad, an ticéid (uh ti-KAY*D), na ticéid;
i gcionn (i GYOON) at the end of (with genitive)
(i LAW*-hir) in the presence of (with genitive)
(er K*OOL), behind (with genitive)
de bharr (de VWAHR),
on account of (with genitive)
Form phrases, with the genitive, from the following word groups. As
an doras; ag dúnadh an dorais.
solas; an rothar
dath; an páipéar
os cionn (ohs
KYOON); an lasán
ag cailleadh (KEYE-luh);
os comhair (ohs
KOH-wir); an droichead
in aice (in AK-e);
ag briseadh; an
in aice; an ceann
le linn (le LIN);
See the Key after the comhrá to verify your answers.
Comhrá (KOH-raw*); conversation
Nach uafásach an aimsir í, a Shéamais? (nahk*
woo-FAW*S-uhk* un EYEM-sheer ee, uh HAY*-mish) John: Isn't the weather
Séamas (SHAY*-muhs): Tá sí níos dona ná
anuraidh (nees DUH-nuh naw* uh-NOOR-ee). Ní raibh mé
amuigh le linn an lae (le LIN uh LAY*). It's worse than last year.
I wasn't out during the day.
Seán: Tá mé ag déanamh oibre (uh DAY*N-uh
IB-re) ag baile inniu. Beidh an bháisteach anseo i gcúpla
uair (be un VWAW*SH-tuhk* uhn-SHUH i GOOP-luh OO-ir). I am doing work
at home today. The rain will be here in a couple of hours.
Beidh sé ag cur báistí go luath (uh KUR BAW*SH-tee
goh LOO-uh). Rachaidh mé abhaile (RAHK*-hee may* uh-VWAHL-e),
agus beidh mé ag léamh mo nuachtáin (NOO-uhk*-TAW*-in)
tar éis an dinnéir (tuhr AY*SH uh din-YAY*R). It will
be raining soon (putting of rain). I shall go home, and I will be
reading my newspaper after dinner.
work, is a feminine noun, and its genitive singular is "oibre,"
of work. "Báisteach," too, is feminine, so that "the
rain" is "an bháisteach".
Key to drill:
Solas an rothair (uh RUH-hir), the bicycle's light; dath an páipéir,
the paper's color; os cionn an lasáin, above the match; praghas
an chiseáin, price of the basket; ag léamh an leabhair,
reading the book; ag cailleadh an airgid, losing the money; ar chúl
an chupáin, behind the cup; tar éis an amhráin,
after the song; os comhair an droichid, in front of the bridge; in
aice an bhóthair, beside the road; ag briseadh an chupáin,
breaking the cup; in aice an chinn eile (uh HYIN EL-e), beside the
other one; le linn an lóin, during the lunch.
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(c) 1998 The
Irish People. May be reprinted with credit.